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Taxon: Kingdom Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals (animal)
 Entity: 

Current position

filozoa ([unranked]) Shalchian-Tabrizi, Minge, Espelund, Orr, Ruden, Jakobsen & Cavalier-Smith, 2008 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 156. [implicit]

Alternative positions

Biota ([unranked]) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982: 161.
Eukarya (Superkingdom) Ref: R.S.K. Barnes, 2002: 171.
Eukaryota (Domain) Chatton, 1925 Ref: P.M. Kirk et al., 2001: 403.
Eukaryota (Empire) Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2004: 1252.
Eukaryota (Superkingdom) Whittaker & Margulis, 1978 Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015: table 2 (p. 34).
Eukaryotae (Superkingdom) Ref: W.J. Bock, 1982: 489.
Holozoa ([unranked]) Lang, O'Kelly, Nerad, Gray & Burger, 2002 Ref: Z.-Q. Zhang, 2011: 9. [indirect]
Metakaryota (Superkingdom) Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1993: table 1 (p. 955).
naturalia ([unranked]) Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 6. [alternative name]
Opisthokonta ([unranked]) Cavalier-Smith, 1987 Ref: P.M. Kirk et al., 2008: 485.
opisthokonts ([unranked]) Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: fig. 2.

Original position

naturalia ([unranked]) Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 6

Subsequent positions

Eukaryota (Domain) Chatton, 1925

Original entries

Cycliophora (Phylum) Funch & Kristensen, 1995
Mammalia (Class) Linnaeus, 1758
Mesozoa (Subkingdom) van Beneden, 1876
Protozoa (Class) G.A. Goldfuss, 1820

Historical positions

Eukaryota (Superkingdom) Whittaker & Margulis, 1978 Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015: table 2 (p. 34).
eukaryotes ([unranked]) Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 117, fig. 2; abstract.
filozoa ([unranked]) Shalchian-Tabrizi, Minge, Espelund, Orr, Ruden, Jakobsen & Cavalier-Smith, 2008 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 156, 160, fig. 2. [alternative position]
opisthokonts ([unranked]) Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2010a: 342, fig. 1.
Eukaryota (Superkingdom) Whittaker & Margulis, 1978 Ref: D.P. Gordon, 2009: 17-22.
Opisthokonta ([unranked]) Cavalier-Smith, 1987 Ref: P.M. Kirk et al., 2008: 485, 531.
Eukaryota (Empire) Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2004: 1252.
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: X.-G. Hou et al., 2004 [inferred name]
Eukarya (Superkingdom) Ref: R.S.K. Barnes, 2002: 171.
Eukaryota (Domain) Chatton, 1925 Ref: P.M. Kirk et al., 2001: 403.
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: 8-21, fig. 1.2. [indirect]
opisthokonts ([unranked]) Ref: 2000: 127. [unofficial] [indirect]
Eukarya (Superkingdom) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1998: 16, 203-211.
Eukaryota (Empire) Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: table 1 (p. 208); table 4 (p. 235).
Opisthokonta ([unranked]) Cavalier-Smith, 1987 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 213. [alternative position]
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: C. Nielsen, 1995
Metakaryota (Superkingdom) Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1993: table 1 (p. 955).
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: M.B. Hart & C.L. Williams, 1993: [43].
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca, 1990: 2.
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: R.S. Boardman et al., 1987
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: R.C. van Caenegem et al., 1979-1984
Eukaryotae (Superkingdom) Ref: W.J. Bock, 1982: 489-490.
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982: 159-165.
Eukaryota (Superkingdom) Whittaker & Margulis, 1978 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1981: tables 1 (p. 462), 11 (p. 477).
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979: 306, 318.
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: R.H. Whittaker, 1969
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: W. Schoenichen, 1927
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: E. Haeckel, 1891: 249.
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: E. Haeckel, 1890: 18.
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: E. Haeckel, 1889: 421.
Biota ([unranked]) Ref: E. Haeckel, 1866: pl. I; pp. XIX, XLVIII.
naturalia ([unranked]) Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 6. [alternative name]

Phylogeny

Holophyletic Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 206, 214.

Ancestor

Choanofila (Subphylum) Cavalier-Smith, 2009 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 160
Choanozoa (Phylum) Cavalier-Smith, 1981 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: fig. 2
Protozoa (Kingdom) Goldfuss, 1818 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: fig. 2

Number of Subtaxa

2019 Available in Systema Naturae 2000 33p;91c;565o;6126f;77,420g;213,976s;28,311ss;482v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;108ss;1v; †5p;69c;466o;2481f;11,235g;4275s;97ss;1v
1989-present Systema Naturae 2000 [33p];~1,487,135s
2015 M.A. Ruggiero et al.: table 2 (p. 54) [34p]
2011 Z.-Q. Zhang: 8, 9 40[39]p;1,552,319[1,527,660]s; †1p;24,659s
2011 Z.-Q. Zhang: 8, 9 40[39]p;1,552,319[1,527,660]s; †1p;24,659s
2005 D. Grimaldi & M.S. Engel [35p];>1,000,000s
2004 T. Cavalier-Smith: 1252 [22p]
2002 R.S.K. Barnes [10Sp]
2000 9474s
1998 T. Cavalier-Smith 23p
1995 C. Nielsen 33p
1993 T. Cavalier-Smith: 955 [2sk]
1990 R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca [36p]
1985 33p
1982 W.J. Bock [38p;98c];>1,000,000s
1982 L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz 32p
1877 E.R. Lankester: 454 [12p;56c;185o; †6o]
1866 5p
©2004-2019 Universal Taxonomic Services
Last updated: 15 Jul 2019