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Node-based clade: Class Aves Linnaeus, 1758 - birds (bird)
Classification by:

Natura - nature
Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1748: 210; Count: 13k;96p;820c;1470o;9569f;110,064g;249,058s;27,517ss;2107v;35,667;111e; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v;7; †5p;75c;514o;2746f;13,565g;4548s;123ss;1v;393
   actualia - actual entities
  Ref: A. Voltolini, 2006: 44 (note 19) [assumed position]; Count: 13k;96p;820c;1470o;9569f;110,064g;249,057s;27,517ss;2107v;35,667;111e; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v;7; †5p;75c;514o;2746f;13,565g;4548s;123ss;1v;393
     Mundus Plinius - physical world
    Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 5 [indirect position]; Count: 13k;96p;820c;1470o;9569f;110,064g;249,057s;27,517ss;2107v;35,665;111e; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v;7; †5p;75c;514o;2746f;13,565g;4548s;123ss;1v;393
       naturalia - natural bodies
      Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 6 [implicit position]; Count: 7k;96p;820c;1470o;9493f;110,054g;248,633s;27,517ss;2076v;8; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;514o;2746f;13,565g;4548s;123ss;1v
         Biota
        Ref: Count: [p] 5k;96p;345c;1462o;9493f;110,011g;246,374s;27,515ss;2048v;8; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;513o;2746f;13,556g;4508s;123ss;1v
           "neomura"
          Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2002b: 297; Count: 5k;67p;283c;1311o;9047f;107,072g;232,718s;27,110ss;2030v;2; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;513o;2745f;13,549g;4499s;123ss;1v
             Domain Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 - eukaryotes
            Ref: P.M. Kirk et al., 2008: 248 [indirect position]; Count: 5k;62p;273c;1292o;9015f;106,945g;232,272s;27,110ss;2030v;2; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;513o;2745f;13,549g;4499s;123ss;1v
               "neokaryotes" - mitochondrial eukaryotes
              Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 116 [inferred position]; Count: 4k;61p;269c;1284o;9009f;106,727g;232,099s;27,103ss;2030v;2; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;513o;2742f;13,455g;4413s;117ss;1v
                 "neozoa"
                Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: fig. 2; Count: 4k;60p;263c;1276o;8998f;106,690g;232,044s;27,103ss;2030v;2; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;513o;2742f;13,455g;4413s;117ss;1v
                   "scotokaryotes" Cavalier-Smith, 1999
                  Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith et al., 2015: 357 [emended diagnosis] [indirect position]; Count: 2k;44p;152c;756o;7029f;85,493g;211,100s;26,579ss;510v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;466o;2403f;10,733g;4100s;97ss;1v
                     "podiates" Cavalier-Smith, 2013
                    Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith et al., 2015: 357 [new position]; Count: [p] 2k;42p;146c;742o;6993f;85,378g;210,941s;26,579ss;510v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;466o;2403f;10,733g;4100s;97ss;1v
                       Amorphea Adl et al., 2012
                      Ref: S.M. Adl et al., 2012: table 1 (p. 430) [new taxon] [indirect position]; Count: [p] 2k;42p;143c;739o;6988f;85,369g;210,928s;26,579ss;510v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;466o;2403f;10,733g;4100s;97ss;1v
                         Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith, 1987
                        Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 98 [indirect position]; Count: [p] 2k;40p;133c;707o;6913f;85,122g;210,458s;26,577ss;506v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;466o;2403f;10,733g;4099s;97ss;1v
                           Holozoa Lang, O'Kelly, Nerad, Gray & Burger, 2002
                          Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 101; Count: [p] 1k;33p;91c;547o;6319f;77,451g;208,524s;26,569ss;483v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;466o;2403f;10,720g;4098s;97ss;1v
                             filozoa Shalchian-Tabrizi, Minge, Espelund, Orr, Ruden, Jakobsen & Cavalier-Smith, 2008
                            Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 156 [inferred position]; Count: 1k;33p;90c;545o;6312f;77,431g;208,502s;26,569ss;483v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;466o;2403f;10,720g;4098s;97ss;1v
                               Kingdom Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
                              Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 156 [implicit position]; Count: 33p;87c;541o;6306f;77,375g;208,434s;26,569ss;482v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;466o;2403f;10,720g;4098s;97ss;1v
                                 Epitheliozoa Ax, 1996
                                Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: fig. 2.5; Count: [p] 32p;83c;514o;6166f;76,646g;208,066s;26,554ss;479v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †4p;65c;439o;2185f;9525g;3867s;97ss;1v
                                   Eumetazoa Bütschli, 1910 - eumetazoans
                                  Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: fig. 2.5; Count: [p] 31p;83c;514o;6165f;76,644g;208,064s;26,554ss;479v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †4p;65c;439o;2185f;9525g;3867s;97ss;1v
                                     Bilateria Hatschek, 1888 - bilaterians
                                    Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 111; Count: [p] 28p;73c;479o;5886f;75,647g;206,981s;26,545ss;463v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †3p;58c;425o;2165f;9386g;3756s;97ss;1v
                                       Superphylum Deuterostomia Grobben, 1908 - deuterostomes
                                      Ref: J.S. Nelson et al., 2016: 13 [indirect position]; Count: [p] 4p;20c;192o;1244f;10,558g;61,970s;11,236ss;308v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †1p;28c;258o;1108f;7289g;2299s;75ss
                                         [crown] Phylum Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
                                        Ref: J.S. Nelson et al., 2016: 13; Count: 9c;149o;1059f;9924g;61,557s;11,228ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †7c;206o;1087f;7148g;2247s;70ss
                                           Subphylum Vertebrata Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates
                                          Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015: table 2 (p. 48); Count: [fc] 6c;142o;1035f;9839g;61,403s;11,224ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †7c;206o;1087f;7143g;2246s;70ss
                                             [crown] Myopterygii - myopterygians
                                            Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 30 [implicit position]; Count: 5c;140o;1031f;9824g;61,284s;11,224ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †5c;191o;1071f;6822g;2234s;68ss
                                               Superclass Gnathostomata Zittel, 1879 - jawed vertebrates
                                              Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 16; Count: 5c;140o;1031f;9824g;61,284s;11,224ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †2c;182o;1043f;6743g;2196s;68ss
                                                 Grade Teleostomi Bonaparte, 1836
                                                Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 82; Count: 4c;126o;977f;9629g;60,126s;11,222ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †1c;147o;939f;6449g;2131s;68ss
                                                   Euteleostomi - bony vertebrates
                                                  Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 86; Count: 4c;126o;977f;9629g;60,126s;11,222ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †144o;929f;6391g;2121s;68ss
                                                     Sarcopterygii Romer, 1955
                                                    Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 17 [inferred rank]; Count: 3c;67o;505f;5068g;31,870s;10,681ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †111o;780f;5927g;1962s;68ss
                                                       Rhipidistia Cope, 1887
                                                      Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 462 [implicit position]; Count: 3c;66o;505f;5068g;31,870s;10,681ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †110o;779f;5919g;1961s;68ss
                                                         Tetrapodomorpha Ahlberg, 1991
                                                        Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 465; Count: 3c;65o;502f;5065g;31,864s;10,676ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †109o;767f;5908g;1959s;68ss
                                                           Osteolepidimorpha
                                                          Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 466; Count: 3c;65o;502f;5065g;31,864s;10,676ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †108o;766f;5902g;1955s;68ss
                                                             Tetrapoda Goodrich, 1930
                                                            Ref: D.R. Frost et al., 2006: fig. 51 [out of scope] [indirect position]; Count: [oc] 3c;65o;502f;5065g;31,864s;10,676ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †106o;759f;5893g;1945s;68ss
                                                               Reptiliomorpha Säve-Söderbergh, 1934
                                                              Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 394 [inferred rank] [implicit position]; Count: [f] 2c;62o;441f;4540g;25,203s;10,606ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;388s;79ss;1v; †100o;689f;5816g;1912s;68ss
                                                                 Batrachosauria
                                                                Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: box 4.5 [implicit position]; Count: [f] 2c;62o;441f;4540g;25,203s;10,606ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;388s;79ss;1v; †99o;677f;5809g;1910s;68ss
                                                                   Amniota Haeckel, 1866 - amniotes
                                                                  Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 394 [inferred rank]; Count: [f] 2c;62o;441f;4540g;25,203s;10,606ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;388s;79ss;1v; †97o;673f;5805g;1909s;68ss
                                                                     Class Reptilia Linnaeus, 1758 - reptiles
                                                                    Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 438 [implicit position]; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †52o;303f;1281g;689s;3ss
                                                                       Eureptilia Olson, 1947
                                                                      Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 438 [inferred rank]; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †47o;294f;1266g;685s;3ss
                                                                         Romeriida Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe, 1988
                                                                        Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †47o;293f;1264g;684s;3ss
                                                                           Clade Diapsida Osborn 1903 [Laurin 1991]
                                                                          Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †47o;292f;1262g;684s;3ss
                                                                             Clade Neodiapsida Benton 1985 [Laurin 1991] {Reisz, Modesto & Scott 2011}
                                                                            Ref: R.R. Reisz et al., 2011: 3733 [emended diagnosis]; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †45o;289f;1259g;683s;3ss
                                                                               [crown] Clade Sauria McCartney 1802 [Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe 1988]
                                                                              Ref: R.R. Reisz et al., 2011: fig. 4; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †44o;286f;1251g;679s;3ss
                                                                                 Clade Archosauromorpha Huene, 1946 [Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe 1988] {Laurin 1991}
                                                                                Ref: R.R. Reisz et al., 2011: fig. 4; Count: 32o;205f;2160g;9642s;5711ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;58g;262s;45ss; †39o;216f;1105g;597s;3ss
                                                                                   Archosauria Cope, 1869
                                                                                  Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: figs. 1.2, 1.8A [Benton, 2015: box 6.1]; Count: 32o;205f;2160g;9642s;5711ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;58g;262s;45ss; †35o;209f;1091g;588s;3ss
                                                                                     Avesuchia Benton, 1999
                                                                                    Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 32o;205f;2160g;9642s;5711ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;58g;262s;45ss; †34o;205f;1085g;588s;3ss
                                                                                       Avemetatarsalia Benton, 1999
                                                                                      Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †30o;175f;933g;470s;3ss
                                                                                         Ornithodira Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                        Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [Benton, 2015: 440] [out of scope]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †30o;174f;932g;469s;3ss
                                                                                           Dinosauromorpha Benton, 1985
                                                                                          Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †29o;153f;869g;448s;3ss
                                                                                             Dinosauriformes Novas, 1992
                                                                                            Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 139; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †29o;152f;868g;447s;3ss
                                                                                               Dinosauria Owen, 1842b
                                                                                              Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †29o;152f;867g;447s;3ss
                                                                                                 Saurischia Seeley, 1887a
                                                                                                Ref: M.C. Langer, 2004: table 2.1; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;132f;674g;370s;3ss
                                                                                                   Eusaurischia Padian et al., 1999
                                                                                                  Ref: M.C. Langer, 2004: table 2.1; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;131f;669g;365s;3ss
                                                                                                     Theropoda Marsh, 1881a
                                                                                                    Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: [21]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;115f;550g;311s;3ss
                                                                                                       Tetanurae Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                                      Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. et al., 2004: table 4.1 (p. [72]); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;112f;520g;301s;3ss
                                                                                                         Avetheropoda Paul, 1988
                                                                                                        Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. et al., 2004: table 4.1 (p. [74]); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;112f;507g;283s;3ss
                                                                                                           Coelurosauria von Huene, 1914a
                                                                                                          Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. et al., 2004: table 4.1 (p. [76]); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;108f;480g;269s;3ss
                                                                                                             Tyrannoraptora
                                                                                                            Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;108f;473g;261s;3ss
                                                                                                               Maniraptoriformes T. Holtz, 1996a
                                                                                                              Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;105f;446g;238s;3ss
                                                                                                                 Maniraptora Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                                                Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;102f;435g;226s;3ss
                                                                                                                   Paraves Sereno, 1997
                                                                                                                  Ref: Zanno, 2010: fig. 6; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †27o;94f;383g;181s;3ss
                                                                                                                     Avialae Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                                                    Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2 [implicit position]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †27o;92f;359g;173s;3ss
                                                                                                                       [Class Aves Linnaeus, 1758 - birds] see Subclass Aves Linnaeus, 1758
                                                                                                                      Ref: J.K. O'Connor et al., 2010: 312 [indirect position]; Count: †4o;4f
                                                                                                                         [Order †Caenagnathiformes]
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                         [Order †"Ichthornithiformes"] see Order Ichthyornithiformes Marsh, 1873
                                                                                                                        Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002: 320; Count: -
                                                                                                                         [Genus Leptopus Fraser, 1845]
                                                                                                                        Ref: S.A. Neave, [2005]: 18 May 2008 [nominal taxon] [implicit position]; Count: -
                                                                                                                         Order †Limnornithiformes
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: †2f
                                                                                                                         Order †Praeornithiformes
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: †1f
                                                                                                                         Family †Ptenopodiscidae
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                         [Genus †Scanirnis]
                                                                                                                        Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002 [rough position]; Count: -
                                                                                                                         Order †Sinosauropterygiformes
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                         Order †Yandangithformes
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                         0.1.0 [Genus †Rahona Forster et al., 1998, nom. praeocc.] see Genus Rahonavis Forster et al., 1998, nom. nov.
                                                                                                                        Ref: 1999 [indirect position]; Count: -
                                                                                                                         1.0 [Subclass †Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893] see Superorder Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893
                                                                                                                        Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: 624; Count: †6o;2f
                                                                                                                         1.0 [Subclass †"Archeornithes"] see Subclass Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893
                                                                                                                        Ref: 1990; Count: -
                                                                                                                         1.0 [Subclass †Sauriurae Haeckel, 1866] see Subclass Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893
                                                                                                                        Ref: E.N. Kurochkin, 1996: 22; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.0 [Subclass Pygostylia] see [unranked] Pygostylia
                                                                                                                        Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 398; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Accipitres Linnaeus, 1758] see Suborder Accipitres (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 121; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Anseres Linnaeus, 1758] see Suborder Anseres Linnaeus, 1758
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 194; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Gallinae Linnaeus, 1758]
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 267; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Grallae Linnaeus, 1758]
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 230; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Subclass Ornithurae Haeckel, 1866] see [unranked] Ornithurae Haeckel, 1866
                                                                                                                        Ref: Z. Zhou & F. Zhang, 2006: 79; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Passeres Linnaeus, 1758] see Suborder Passeres (C. Linnaeus, 1758) C. Linnaeus, 1766
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 279; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Picae Linnaeus, 1758] see Parvclass Picae (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 139; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2.0 [Subclass †Odontoholcae (Marsh, 1875) Stejneger, 1885] see Cohort Ornithurae (Haeckel, 1866)
                                                                                                                        Ref: P. Brodkorb, 1963: 191; Count: -

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Last updated: 2 Apr 2018