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Person: T. Cavalier-Smith
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T. Cavalier-Smith (Thomas)
Standard form: Caval.-Sm.


Cavalier-Smith, T., 1978. The evolutionary origin and phylogeny of microtubules, mitotic spindles and eukaryote flagella. BioSystems 10: 93-114.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1981. Eukaryotic kingdoms, seven or nine?. BioSystems 14 (3-4): 461-481. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1993. The Protozoan Phylum Opalozoa. J. Euk. Microbiol. 40 (5), Sep-Oct 1993: 609-615.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1993. Kingdom Protozoa and Its 18 Phyla. Microbiological Reviews 57 (4), Dec 1993: 953-994. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., Allsopp, M.T.E.P. & Chao, E.E., 1994. Chimeric conundra: Are nucleomorphs and chromists monophyletic or polyphyletic?. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, Nov 1994: 11368-11372. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E. & Allsopp, M.T.E.P., 1995. Ribosomal RNA Evidence for Chloroplast Loss within Heterokonta. Arch. Protistenk. 145 (3-4), Apr 1995: 209-220. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., Allsopp, M.T.E.P., Häuber, M.M., Gothe, G., Chao, E.E., Couch, J.A. & Maier, U.-G., 1996. Chromobiote phylogeny: the enigmatic alga Reticulosphaera japonensis is an aberrant haptophyte, not a heterokont. Eur. J. Phycol. 31: 255-263. [Online: 17 Feb 2007] [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E., 1996. 18S rRNA sequence of Heterosigma carterae (Raphidophyceae), and the phylogeny of heterokont algae (Ochrophyta). Phycologia 35 (6), Nov 1996: 500-510. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1997. Sagenista and Bigyra, two phyla of heterotrophic heterokont chromists. Arch. Protistenk. 148 (3), Oct 1997: 253-267. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1997. Amoeboflagellates and Mitochondrial Cristae in Eukaryote Evolution: Megasystematics of the New Protozoan Subkingdoms Eozoa and Neozoa. Arch. Protistenk. 147 (3-4), Apr 1997: 237-258. [Online: 2 Feb 2012] [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biol. Rev. 73: 203-266.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1999. Zooflagellate Phylogeny and the Systematics of Protozoa. Biol. Bull. 196, Jun 1999: 393-396. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1999. Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: euglenoid, dinoflagellate, and sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 46 (4), Jul-Aug 1999: 347-366. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2002b. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 297-354. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2002a. The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52, 14 Jan 2002: 7-76. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2003. The excavate protozoan phyla Metamonada Grassé emend. (Anaeromonadea, Parabasalia, Carpediemonas, Eopharyngia) and Loukozoa emend. (Jakobea, Malawimonas: their evolutionary affinities and new higher taxa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53: 1741-1758. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2003. Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa. European Journal of Protistology 39 (4): 338-348. [Online: 3 Nov 2004[2003?]] [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E.-Y., 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution. J. Mol. Evol. 56 (5): 540-563. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E.-Y., 2003. Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa). Protist 154 (3-4), Oct 2003: 341-358.
Bass, D. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2004. Phylum-specific environmental DNA analysis reveals remarkably high global biodiversity of Cercozoa (Protozoa). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 2393-2404.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2004. Only six kingdoms of life. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271: 1251-1262. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E.-Y. & Oates, B., 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Amoebozoa and the evolutionary significance of the unikont Phalansterium. Europ. J. Protistol. 40: 21-48. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E., 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.). Europ. J. Protistol. 40 (3), 6 Sep 2004: 185-212. [Online: 12 Aug 2004] [Online]
Kudryavtsev, A., Bernhard, D., Schlegel, M., Chao, E.E.-Y. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2005. 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the Phylogeny of Amoebozoa. Protist 156 (2), Aug 2005: 215-224.
Karpov, S.A., Bass, D., Mylnikov, A.P. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2006. Molecular phylogeny of Cercomonadidae and kinetid patterns of Cercomonas and Eocercomonas gen. nov. (Cercomonadida, Cercozoa). Protist 157: 125-158.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E.-Y., 2006. Phylogeny and Megasystematics of Phagotrophic Heterokonts (Kingdom Chromista). J. Mol. Evol. 62: 388-420. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2006. Cell evolution and earth history: stasis and revolution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. (B) 361 (1470), 29 Jun 2006: 969-1006. [Online]
Smirnov, A.V., Nassonova, E.S., Chao, E. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2007. Phylogeny, Evolution, and Taxonomy of Vannellid Amoebae. Protist 158, Jul 2007: 295-324. [Online: 2 Jul 2007]
Cavalier-Smith, T. & von der Heyden, S., 2007. Molecular phylogeny, scale evolution and taxonomy of centrohelid heliozoa. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 44 (3), Sep 2007: 1186-1203. [Online: 10 May 2007] [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E., Stechmann, A., Oates, B. & Nikolaev, S., 2008. Planomonadida ord. nov. (Apusozoa): Ultrastructural Affinity with Micronuclearia podoventralis and Deep Divergences within Planomonas gen. nov.. Protist 159 (4), 21 Oct 2008: 535-562. [Online: 23 Aug 2008] [Online]
Bass, D., Chao, E.E.-Y., Nikolaev, S., Yabuki, A., Ishida, K.-i., Berney, C., Pakzad, U., Wylezich, C. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2009. Phylogeny of Novel Naked Filose and Reticulose Cercozoa: Granofilosea cl. n. and Proteomyxidea Revised. Protist 160 (1), Feb 2009: 75-109. [Online: 26 Oct 2008] [Online]
Howe, A.T., Bass, D., Vickerman, K., Chao, E.E. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2009. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Astounding Genetic Diversity of Glissomonadida ord. nov., The Dominant Gliding Zooflagellates in Soil (Protozoa: Cercozoa). Protist 160 (2), May 2009: 159-189. [Online: 25 Mar 2009] [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., Lewis, R., Chao, E.E., Oates, B. & Bass, D., 2009. Helkesimastix marina n. sp. (Cercozoa: Sainouroidea superfam. n.) a Gliding Zooflagellate of Novel Ultrastructure and Unusual Ciliary Behaviour. Protist 160 (3), Aug 2009: 452-479. [Online: 12 Jun 2009] [Online]
Bass, D., Howe, A.T., Mylnikov, A.P., Vickerman, K., Chao, E.E., Edwards-Smallbone, J., Snell, J., Cabral Jr., C. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2009. Phylogeny and classification of Cercomonadida (Protozoa, Cercozoa): Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Paracercomonas, and Cavernomonas gen. nov.. Protist 160 (4), Nov 2009: 483-521. [Online: 8 Jul 2009] [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2010a. Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol. Lett. 6 (3), 23 Jun 2010: 342-345. [Online: 23 Dec 2009] [Online]
Howe, A.T., Bass, D., Scoble, J.M., Lewis, R., Vickerman, K., Arndt, H. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2011. Novel Cultured Protists Identify Deep-branching Environmental DNA Clades of Cercozoa: New Genera Tremula, Micrometopion, Minimassisteria, Nudifila, Peregrinia. Protist 162 (2), Apr 2011: 332-372. [Online: 4 Feb 2011]
Glücksman, E., Snell, E.A., Berney, C., Chao, E.E., Bass, D. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2011. The Novel Marine Gliding Zooflagellate Genus Mantamonas (Mantamonadida ord. n.: Apusozoa). Protist 162 (2), Apr 2011: 207-221. [Online: 29 Sep 2010] [Online]
Smirnov, A.V., Chao, E., Nassonova, E.S. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2011. A Revised Classification of Naked Lobose Amoebae (Amoebozoa: Lobosa). Protist 162, Oct 2011: 545-570. [Online: 28 Jul 2011] [Online]
Anderson, O.R. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2012. Ultrastructure of Diplophrys parva, a New Small Freshwater Species, and a Revised Analysis of Labyrinthulea (Heterokonta). Acta Protozool. 51: 291-304. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E., 2012. Oxnerella micra sp. n. (Oxnerellidae fam. n.), a Tiny Naked Centrohelid, and the Diversity and Evolution of Heliozoa. Protist 163, Jul 2012: 574–601. [Online: 7 Feb 2012]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2013. Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa. Europ. J. Protistol. 49 (2), May 2013: 115-178. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Scoble, J.M., 2013. Phylogeny of Heterokonta: Incisomonas marina, a uniciliate gliding opalozoan related to Solenicola (Nanomonadea), and evidence that Actinophryida evolved from raphidophytes. Eur. J. Protistol. 49 (3), Aug 2013: 328-353. [Online: 4 Dec 2012] [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2014. Gregarine site-heterogeneous 18S rDNA trees, revision of gregarine higher classification, and the evolutionary diversification of Sporozoa. Europ. J. Protistol. 50 (5), Oct 2014: 472-495. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2015. Mixed heterolobosean and novel gregarine lineage genes from culture ATCC50646: Long-branch artefacts, not lateral gene transfer, distort α-tubulin phylogeny. Europ. J. Protistol. 51: 121-137. [Online]
Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M.D. & Kirk, P.M., 2015. A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10 (4), 29 Apr 2015: 1-60. [Online]
Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M.D. & Kirk, P.M., 2015. Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10 (6), 11 Jun 2015: 1-54. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E. & Lewis, R., 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: New cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 93, Dec 2015: 331-362. [Online: 31 Jul 2015] [Online]


Cavalier-Smith, T., 1986. The kingdom Chromista: origin and systematics. In F.E. Round & D.J. Chapman (eds.), Progress in Phycological Research 4: 309-347. [Online]
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1989. The kingdom Chromista. In J.C. Green, B.S.C. Leadbeater & W.L. Diver (eds.), The Chromophyte Algae: Problems and Perspectives, Systematics Association Special Volume, No. 38. Clarendon Press, Oxford: 381-407.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2000. Flagellate megaevolution. In B.S.C. Leadbeater & J.C. Green (eds.), The Flagellates. The Systematics Association Special Volume Series 59. Taylor & Francis, London/New York: 361-390.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2001. What are Fungi?. In D.J. McLaughlin, E.G. McLaughlin & P.A. Lemke (eds.), VII Systematics and Evolution, Part A. In K. Esser & P.A. Lemke (eds.), The Mycota. Springer-Verlag, Berlin: 3-37.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2004. Chromalveolate Diversity and Cell Megaevolution. In R.P. Hirt & D.S. Horner (eds.), Organelles, Genomes and Eukaryote Phylogeny. The Systematics Association Special Volume Series 68, 28 Jun 2004: 75-108. [e-book, 2005: pp. [86]-126] [Online]
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Last updated: 25 Apr 2017